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Wojna w Iraku

Posted by mrcollector w dniu Luty 8, 2007

 

Iraq War

U.S. troops pass by burning oil fields while convoying to Al Jawala, Iraq, during an operation.
Date March 20, 2003 to Present
Location Iraq
Result Conflict ongoing

Casus
belli
War justifications:

Combatants
Ba’athist Iraq
Insurgent Forces:
Ba’ath Loyalists
Al-Qaeda in Iraq
Islamic Army in Iraq
Mahdi Army
Flag of Iraq New Iraqi Army
Iraqi Kurdistan
Coalition Forces:
Flag of United States United States
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Australia Australia
Commanders
Saddam Hussein
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Ayyub al-Masri
Flag of Iraq Moqtada al-Sadr
Flag of Iraq Hadi Al-Amiri
Flag of Iraq Nouri al-Maliki
Massoud Barzani
Flag of United States George W. Bush
Flag of United States Tommy Franks
Flag of United States George Casey
Flag of United States David Petraeus
Flag of United Kingdom Elizabeth II
Flag of United Kingdom Brian Burridge
Flag of United Kingdom Peter Wall
Strength
Iraqi
375,000+ regular forces
Sunni Insurgents
60,000[citation needed]
Mahdi Army

60,000[17][4]
Badr Organization
4-10,000[citation needed]
al Qaeda/others
1,300+[5]
Coalition
315,000 invasion
147,000 current
Contractors*
~100,000[6]
Kurds
50,000 invasion
100,000 current
New Iraqi Army
129,760
Iraqi Police
79-140,000
Casualties
Iraqi military dead (Saddam-era):
4,895-6,370[7][8]
Insurgents dead:
4,579+
See: List of Insurgents killed
Iraqi Security Forces dead (post-Saddam era): 12,000+[9][10]Iraqi Security Forces wounded: unknownCoalition dead (3,111 US, 131 UK, 124 other, *770 contractors): 4,125[11][12][6]Coalition Missing or Captured (US 2): 2Coalition Wounded (23,279 U.S., 893+ UK, 7,761 contractors): 31,605[13][11][14][15][16]
**Total deaths (all Iraqis) Johns Hopkins:
392,979 – 942,636[17][18]War-related & criminal violence deaths (all Iraqis) Iraq Health Minister:
100,000-150,000[19]War-related & criminal violence deaths (civilians) Iraq Body Count-english language media only:
55,305-60,991[20][21]
*Contractors (U.S. government) = „former special forces soldiers to drivers, cooks, mechanics, plumbers, translators, electricians and laundry workers and other support personnel.”[12]
**Total deaths include all additional deaths due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare, etc.
For explanations of the wide variation in casualty estimates, see: Casualties of the conflict in Iraq since 2003

 

Wojna w Iraku, która toczy się od 2003r aż do dzisiaj i nic nie zanosi się na to, że szybko się skończy. Chociaż obalono już Saddama Husajna, pojamano go i stracono w Iraku nadal jest niespokojnie. To państwo stoi na granicy wojny domowej. Aby przedstawić ten konflikt posłużę się bogatymi zasobami Wikipedii oraz YouTube.com. To taka moja biografia aby nikt nie stwierdził, że sam napisałem te informacje. Tylko tekst w języku angielskim. Aby za bardzo nie zaśmiecać nie będę wklejał całych tekstów, tylko same linki. Preludium do inwazji w roku 2003 były takie operacje jak:
Stworzenie w Iraku no-fly zones od 1991 do 2003r.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 688
Operation Provide Comfort

Operation Provide Comfort, N. Iraq, 1991. Lt. Col. John Abizaid (L) speaking with some Kurds.

Operation Southern Focus
Operation Nothern Watch
Operation Southern Watch
Iracki Kurdystan
Następnie w okresie 2002-2003r jeszcze przed inwazją nastąpił kryzys związany z możliwością posiadania przez Irak broni masowej zagłady. Poniżej dokładna linia czasu co się działo przed II wojną w Zatoce Perskiej.

2001

February 2001

  • British and US forces carry out bombing raids in an attempt to disable Iraq’s air defense network.

2002

May

May 14, 2002

  • The UN Security Council passes resolution 1409, which reaffirms UN members’ commitment to maintaining the territorial integrity of Iraq.

July

July 5, 2002

  • Iraq once again rejects new UN weapons inspection proposals.

August, 2002

  • According to U.S. Intelligence, China, with help from France and Syria, has secretly sold to Iraq the prohibited chemical Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, or HTPB, which is used in making solid fuel for long-range missiles. France denies that the sale took place. U.S. intelligence traces the sale back to China’s Qilu Chemicals company in Shandong province. The chemical sale involved a French company known as CIS Paris, which helped broker the sale of 20 tons of HTPB, which was then shipped from China to the Syrian port of Tartus. The chemicals were then shipped by truck from Syria to an Iraqi missile manufacturing plant.

August

August 2, 2002

August 19, 2002

September

September 12, 2002

  • US President George W. Bush, addressing the UN General Assembly, challenges the UN to confront the „grave and gathering danger” of Iraq or stand aside as the United States and likeminded nations act. The UN Security Council begins discussion on drafting a new resolution to encourage Iraq to comply with the previous sixteen UN resolutions.

September 26, 2002

October

October 3, 2002

  • US Evangelical Christian leaders led by Richard Land of the Southern Baptist Convention send a letter to President Bush outlining the theological justification for a pre-emptive attack on Iraq.

October 10, 2002

November

November 8, 2002

  • The UN Council votes unanimously for resolution 1441, the 17th Iraq disarmament resolution passed by the council, calling for immediate and complete disarmament of Iraq. The resolution also demands that Iraq declare all weapons of mass destruction to the council, and account for its known chemical weapons material stockpiles.

November 13, 2002

  • Iraq accepts U.N. Security Council Resolution 1441 and informs the UN that it will abide by the resolution.
  • Weapons inspectors arrive in Baghdad again after a four-year absence.

December

December 7, 2002

  • Iraq files a 12,000-page weapons declaration with the UN in order to meet requirements of resolution 1441. UN weapons inspectors, the UN security council and the U.S. feel that this declaration fails to account for all of Iraq’s chemical and biological agents.
  • Turkey moves approximately 15,000 soldiers to the border with Iraq

December 19, 2002

  • UNMOVIC Chairman Hans Blix tells UNSC members that the Iraqi weapons declaration filed on December 7 „is essentially a reorganized version” of information Iraq provided UNSCOM in 1997, and that it „is not enough to create confidence” that Iraq has abandoned its WMD efforts.

2003

January

January, 2003

  • Turkey invites at least five other regional countries to a „‚last-chance’ meeting to avert a US-led war against Iraq.”
  • According to U.S. Intelligence, France has secretly sold prohibited spare parts to Iraq for its fighter jets and military helicopters.

January 18, 2003

  • Global protests against war on Iraq occur in cities around the world, including Tokyo, Moscow, Paris, London, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Cologne, Bonn, Goteborg, Istanbul, and Cairo. NION and ANSWER hold protests in Washington D.C. and San Francisco, California.

January, 2003

  • A statement released to various newspapers and signed by the leaders of Britain, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Hungary, Poland, Denmark and the Czech Republic shows support for the US, saying that Saddam should not be allowed to violate U.N. resolutions. The statement goes on to say that Saddam ia a „clear threat to world security,” and urges Europe to unite with the United States to ensure that the Iraqi government is disarmed.

January 25, 2003

  • An international group of volunteers leaves London, heading for Baghdad to act as human shields. Most will leave in March fearing that they would actually become human shields.

January 27, 2003

  • Chairmen of the inspections effort report to the UN Security Council that, while Iraq has provided some access to facilities, concerns remain regarding undeclared material; inability to interview Iraqi scientists; inability to deploy aerial surveillance during inspections; and harassment of weapons inspectors.

February

February 5, 2003

February 7, 2003

February 8, 2003

  • Sections of a ‚dossier’ issued by the UK government, which purports to present the latest British intelligence about Iraq, and which has been cited by Tony Blair and Colin Powell as evidence for the need for war, is criticized as plagiarisms. Evidently they have been copied without permission from a number of sources including Jane’s Intelligence Review and a 12-year-old doctoral thesis of a Californian student which was published in the US journal Middle East Review of International Affairs. Some sentences appear copied word-for-word with even spelling mistakes being reproduced from the original articles. Downing Street responds by saying that the government had never claimed exclusive authorship and that the information was accurate.

February 10, 2003

  • France and Belgium break the NATO procedure of silent approval concerning the timing of protective measures for Turkey in case of a possible war with Iraq. Germany says it supports this veto. The procedure was put into operation on February 6 by secretary general George Robertson. In response Turkey calls upon Article 4 of the NATO Treaty, which stipulates that member states must deliberate when asked to do so by another member state if it feels threatened.

February 12, 2003

February 14, 2003

  • A very large demonstration is held in Melbourne to protest against the Australian government’s support for the USA’s policy on Iraq. Organisers estimate that 200,000 people come out on to the streets, while some news sources put the number at „up to 150,000”. [1]
  • UNMOVIC chief weapons inspectors Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei present their second report to the United Nations Security Council. They state that the Iraqis have been co-operating well with the inspectors and that no weapons of mass destruction have been found, but that the Saddam Hussein government had still to account for many banned weapons believed to have been in his arsenal. Mr Blix also expresses doubts about some of the conclusions in Colin Powell‚s Security Council presentation of February 5, and specifically questions the significance of some of the photographic evidence that Mr Powell has presented.

February 15, 2003

  • Global protests against war on Iraq: People around the world demonstrate against the planning of war against Iraq. In Rome one million people take to the streets, in London one million. In Berlin there is half a million in the largest demonstration for some decades. There are also protest marches all over France as well as in many other smaller European cities. Protests are also held in South Africa, Syria, India, Russia, Canada and in the USA, in around 600 cities in total.

February 18, 2003

  • Hours before the first ships transporting heavy United States military equipment to Turkey were supposed to reach port, the Turkish government announces that it will withhold approval to dock unless the United States increases a reciprocal $6 billion foreign aid grant to $10 billion. The Bush administration indicates that no substantial changes will be made to the proposed aid package. [2]

February 24, 2003

  • Secretary of State Colin Powell states at a meeting in Beijing that „It is time to take action. The evidence is clear … We are reaching that point where serious consequences must flow.” His speech appears to imply that military action is likely to follow within three weeks, based on previous briefings from The Pentagon.

February 25, 2003

  • The United States, Britain and Spain present to the UN Security Council a much-anticipated second resolution stating that Iraq „has failed to take the final opportunity” to disarm, but does not include deadlines or an explicit threat of military force. Meanwhile, France, Germany, and Russia offer a counter-proposal calling for peaceful disarmament through further inspections.
  • Both major parties of Kurdistan, an autonomous region in Northern Iraq, vow to fight Turkish troops if they enter Kurdistan to capture Mosul or interfere in Kurdish self-rule. Between them the two parties can mobilize up to 80,000 guerillas – most likely no match for the modern Turkish army, but a severe blow to the unity of U.S. allies on the Northern front expected in the U.S. plan to invade Iraq.

February 26, 2003

  • Hans Blix states that Iraq still has not made a „fundamental decision” to disarm, despite recent signs of increased cooperation. Specifically, Iraq has refused to destroy its al-Samoud 2 long range missiles. (These are not a WMD, and Iraq is permitted „battlefield” missiles. However, Iraq’s missiles were limited by UN instruction to a diameter of 600mm, and the Al-Samoud II has a diameter of 760mm). These missiles are deployed and mobile. Also, an R-400 aerial bomb was found that could possibly contain biological agents. Given this find, the UN Inspectors have requested access to the Al-Aziziyah weapons range to verify that all 155 R-400 bombs can be accounted for and proven destroyed. Blix also expresses skepticism over Iraq’s claims to have destroyed its stockpiles of anthrax and VX nerve agent in Time magazine. Blix said he found it „a bit odd” that Iraq, with „one of the best-organized regimes in the Arab world,” would claim to have no records of the destruction of these illegal substances. „I don’t see that they have acquired any credibility,” Blix said
  • George Bush commits publicly to a post-invasion democracy in Iraq, saying it will be „an example” to other nations in Arabia
  • Tony Blair passes a motion in the British House of Commons supporting a new resolution at the UN Security Council and presumably authorizing a war (although the motion carefully avoids saying so). 120 UK Labour Party MPs dissent and vote against it – double the number who opposed the previous such motion – but the UK Conservative Party backs the government’s motion.
  • Saddam Hussein, in an interview with Dan Rather, rules out exile as an option.

February 27, 2003

  • UN Security Council meeting on Iraq ends without forming an agreement on timeline for further weapons inspections or future reports.

February 28, 2003

  • Iraq is expected to begin the process of destroying Al Samoud two missiles on Saturday. Hans Blix, U.N. chief weapons inspector says „It is a very significant piece of real disarmament”. However, the spokesman of the White House, Ari Fleischer declares that the Iraq commitment to destroying these missiles is a fraud that President George W. Bush had predicted, and indicates that the United States wants a total and complete disarmament of Iraq. He also repeats that if the United Nations does not act to disarm Baghdad, the United States will lead a coalition of voluntary countries to disarm Saddam Hussein.

March

March 1, 2003

  • Under UN supervision, Iraq begins destroying four of its Al Samoud missiles.
  • The Turkish speaker of Parliament voids the vote accepting U.S. troops involved in the planned invasion of Iraq into Turkey on constitutional grounds. 264 votes for and 250 against accepting 62,000 US military personnel do not constitute the necessary majority under the Turkish constitution, due to 19 abstentions. [3]
  • The United Arab Emirates calls for Iraqi president Saddam Hussein to step down to avoid war. The sentiment is later echoed by Kuwait.
  • Many of the „human shields” begin to return to their home countries because the Iraqi government actually wanted to use them as human shields. The human shields that fled the country told reporters that the Iraqi government wanted them to sit at locations (power stations) that were quite likely to be bombed, not the hospitals they’d intended to defend. (The following year, at least one hospital was razed [4]).

March 2, 2003

  • The country of Bahrain becomes the third Arab country to call for Iraqi president Saddam Hussein to step down. Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates had previously made similar announcements.
  • The Observer publishes what it claims is a leaked memo dated January 31, 2003 ordering members of the NSA to spy on UN Security Council members, focussing especially on members from Angola, Cameroon, Chile, Mexico, Guinea, and Pakistan to try to determine how they will vote. The memo’s authenticity was questioned by many within the US, including pundit Matt Drudge. Drudge’s critique was also cited by others, such as the Washington Times [5]. Drudge pointed out that website’s transcription of the memo contained several errors, namely a misspelling of the name of the memo’s author (Kozu instead of Koza), a misspelling of the NSA’s „top secret” stamp (with a „1” instead of an „L”), and several words written with a non-US spelling, as well as a date-stamp in the European format. The Observer said that it altered the memo to include British spellings so that its readers were not confused, but did not address the other inaccuracies. The Observer also corrected the spelling of the author’s name on their website after the problem was pointed out, and stands by its story. Wayne Madsen, who had been a communications security analyst with the NSA in the mid-1980s, has been quoted as saying that he believes the memo is authentic. He speculates that the memo was directed at the security agencies of the other nations that constitute the Echelon network, namely Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. This news story was picked up by newspapers in Europe and Canada, but initially ignored by the American press. Additionally, a member or Britain’s Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) was arrested in connection with the leaking of the memo.
  • Iraq destroys six more Al Samoud missiles, bringing the total destroyed to 10 out of an estimated 100 missiles ordered eliminated by the UN. The White House continues to dismiss Iraq’s actions as „part of its game of deception.” Iraq indicates that it may halt destruction of the missiles if the U.S. indicates it will go to war anyway.
  • The Sun reports that military action against Iraq could begin as soon as March 13, hours after the UN is likely to vote on the proposed second resolution put forth by the United States, Britain, and Spain.

March 3, 2003

  • Under intense American pressure, Turkey indicates that its Parliament will consider a second vote on whether to allow U.S. troops to use Turkish bases for a military attack on Iraq.
  • Iraqi technicians use bulldozers to crush six more of the banned Al-Samoud 2 missiles, bringing to 16 the number destroyed in three days.

March 4, 2003

  • Iraq destroys three more Al Samoud 2 missiles, bringing to 19 the number Baghdad has crushed out of 100 ordered destroyed by the UN. Iraq also destroys a launcher and five engines in a rush to prove it is disarming before a crucial U.N. report on March 7. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan calls the new actions „a positive development” while the White House remains unconvinced saying, „Despite whatever limited head-fakes Iraq has engaged in, they continue to fundamentally not disarm.”

March 5, 2003

  • Pope John Paul II calls on Catholics to commemorate Ash Wednesday by fasting and praying for peace. He sends an envoy, Cardinal Pio Laghi, to President Bush, to urge him not to go to war. Laghi tells Bush that the Pope believes that a war would be a „defeat for humanity” and would be neither morally nor legally justified.
  • Two days before his scheduled update to the United Nations on Iraqi cooperation with inspection, Hans Blix credits Iraq with „a great deal more of cooperation now”, although still expressing some skepticism as to whether or not the cooperation would continue. Among the examples of cooperation that he cites are Iraq’s destruction of Samoud 2 missiles, which he called „the most spectacular and the most important and tangible”. He added that „here weapons that can be used in war are being destroyed in fairly large quantities.” In general, he states, „you have a greater measure of cooperation on interviews in general.” These statements have helped to harden the opposition to the US-led war by several other Security Council members. (It was later found that Blix had found and destroyed almost the only illegal weapons in Iraq – and they were not WMD).
  • Secretary of State Colin Powell says that US intelligence has indicated that Hussein has ordered the production of more Al Samoud 2 missiles parts and engines. The Iraqi government does not deny the claim but simply says once again that they considered the missiles to be legal. Powell also points out that Iraq has delivered „some documents that have not been found before”
  • Iraq destroys nine more Al Samoud 2 missiles, bringing to 28 the total number of missiles scrapped.

March 6, 2003

  • United States intelligence reports that the Iraqi government has ordered US military uniforms with plans of carrying out attacks on Iraqi citizens which would then be blamed on US soldiers. (Reuters) [6]
  • Iraqi exiles testify in Washington about the brutal crimes committed against Iraqi citizens by the Hussein government. One Iraqi woman said that the Iraqi people are „patiently waiting” for the US to liberate the country. Another woman said that war protestors are „ignorant and misinformed”. [7]
  • Iraq flattens six more Al Samoud 2 missiles, meaning the country has now destroyed 34 of its known stock of 100 of the banned rockets.
  • China joins France, Russia, and Germany in putting itself officially on record as opposing a US-led war. Jiang Zemin is quoted as saying, „The door of peace should not be closed.”
  • US President George W. Bush holds a live, televised press conference on the latest developments in the War on Terrorism, the situation with North Korea and the standoff with Iraq. [8]

March 7, 2003

  • The Washington Times publishes a report detailing recent US intelligence showing that France has been secretly selling spare parts to Iraq for its fighter jets and military helicopters during the past several months. Other intelligence reports indicate that Iraq had succeeded in acquiring French weaponry illegally for years. [9] The German newspapger Die Tageszeitung claims that at the request of the United States, the 12,000 page Iraqi weapons declaration was largely censored before being submitted to the UN, in order to remove references to Western countries that supplied arms to Iraq. Only some 3,000 pages were left after the censorship; The German newspapger Die Tageszeitung had obtained copies of the censored report, which references such companies as Honeywell among a chief supplier of Iraqi arms. The list of American companies can be found at [10]
  • Hans Blix reports to the UN Security Council. Blix said basically the same thing as he did in previous reports. Iraq has shown some progress, but has still not yet fully disarmed. Blix also filed a 173 page document with the Security Council which said that inspectors discovered an undeclared Iraqi drone, with a wingspan of 7.45 m (24 ft 5 in), suggesting an illegal range that could potentially threaten Iraq’s neighbors with chemical and biological weapons. US satellites tracked test flights of these drones, which were mentioned by Secretary of State Powell on March 5. Powell claimed that the test flight far exceeded the legal range agreed to by Iraq under UN resolutions. The Iraqis showed journalists this ‚drone’ [11]. It was primitive, and could only be flown within „line of sight”. Bizarrely, Blix was roasted in some parts of the UK and US press for not having found and declared this large model aircraft [12].
  • Mohamed ElBaradei, head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, concluded that the documents the US and Britain offered as „proof” that Iraq had attempted to import uranium from Niger were in fact fraudulent. This „proof” was a key part of the US accusation that Iraq was restarting its nuclear weapons program. ElBaradei said, „Based on thorough analysis, the IAEA has concluded … that these documents, which formed the basis for the reports of recent uranium transactions between Iraq and Niger, are in fact not authentic.” He concluded, „We have therefore concluded that these specific allegations are unfounded.”
  • International peacekeepers in Kuwait file a complaint to the UN Security Council that US Marines have been cutting holes in the fence on the UN-patrolled border between Kuwait and Iraq. Fred Eckhard, a UN spokesman who filed the complaint, said that this activity may violate the Security Council resolution that set up the zone, but added that it was up to the UN Security Council to make a determination.
  • Amendments are added to the 2003 US-British-Spanish Draft Resolution on Iraq, setting a deadline of March 17. The draft is not tabled when it becomes clear that the resolution will not pass.

March 9, 2003

  • Near the Iraq/Kuwait border, a dozen Iraqi soldiers attempt to surrender to British paratroopers who are testing their weapons during a routine exercise. The stunned Soldiers from the 16 Air Assault Brigade inform the Iraqis that they were not firing at them, and tell them it is too early to surrender.

March 11, 2003

  • Iraqi fighters threaten two US U-2 surveillance planes forcing them to abort their mission and return to base. Iraqi officials describe the incident as a „technical mistake” by the U.N. inspectors. Ewen Buchanan, spokesman for UNMOVIC, says that Iraqi officials had been notified about the flight beforehand.
  • According to Arab media, Saddam Hussein has opened training camps in Iraq for Arab volunteers willing to carry out suicide bombings against U.S. forces, if an attack on Iraq takes place.

March 12, 2003

  • British prime minister Tony Blair proposes an amendment to the possible 18th resolution which would call for Iraq to meet certain benchmarks to prove that it was disarming. The benchmarks include a televised speech from Hussein declaring the country’s intentions to disarm, and accounting for Iraq’s chemical weapons stockpiles and unmanned drones. France once again threatens to veto even if a majority of the council votes in favor of the resolution.

March 13, 2003

  • Reports claim that a large portion of Iraqi military is ready to surrender if a war begins. Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld admits that the U.S. government is communicating with Iraqi soldiers. It had been known for some time that the U.S. military was communicating with Iraqi soldiers via email.

March 16, 2003

  • The leaders of the United States, Britain, Portugal and Spain meet at a summit in the Azores Islands. President Bush calls Monday, March 17th, the „moment of truth”, meaning that the „coalition of the willing” would make its final effort to extract a resolution from the U.N. Security Council that would give Iraq an ultimatum to disarm immediately or to be disarmed by force.
  • The United States advises U.N. weapons inspectors to leave Iraq. [13]
  • The United States orders all non-essential diplomats out of Kuwait, Syria, and Israel.
  • Anti-Saddam Iraqi groups begin defacing and vandalising posters of the dictator all over Iraq. Demonstrations also take place in Kirkuk, where an estimated crowd of 20,000 marched on the Ba’ath party’s main administrative headquarters demanding the overthrow of Saddam’s government. Three posters of the Iraqi leader were torn to pieces and a grenade was thrown at the government building. Some reports indicate that one senior Ba’ath party official was killed in the attack.

March 17, 2003

  • In a televised speech, U.S. President George W. Bush gives Saddam Hussein 48 hours to go into exile or face war.
  • U.S. Intelligence reports that Iraqi soldiers in Southern Iraq have been armed with chemical weapons.
  • France announces that it would support U.S. troops if Iraq launches chemical weapons against U.S. forces.

March 18, 2003

  • Saddam Hussein rejects the exile option.

March 19, 2003

  • 15 Iraqi soldiers surrender near the Kuwait border.
  • British defense sources claim that Saddam Hussein may use chemical weapons on his Iraqi people and blame the attacks on coalition forces as part of a propaganda war. Earlier in the year, Hussein equipped part of the Iraqi military with look-alike U.S. uniforms.
  • U.S. warplanes bomb Iraqi artillery in range of U.S. soldiers.

Governments’ pre-war positions on invasion of Iraq
Public relations preparations for 2003 invasion of Iraq
The UN Security Council and the Iraq war
American government position on invasion of Iraq
Legitimacy of the invasion
Iraq and weapons of mass destruction

Dokładnie 20 marca 2003r. wojska USA rozpoczęły inwazję na Irak w celu obalenia Saddama Husajna oraz znalezienia broni masowej zagłady (której do dzisiaj nie ma). Sama wojna zakończyła się błyskawicznie ale do dzisiaj trwają zacięte walki partyzantów i bojowników z wojskami koalicji (woczraj zginął polski żołnierz). Irak jest w stanie wojny domowej, a także religijnej. Na początek sama inwazja:
2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 Iraq war timeline
List of people associated with the 2003 invasion of Iraq
Military operations of the Iraq War
Iraq War order of battle

April 2003: Coalition Provisional Authority and the Iraq Survey Group

Coalition Provisional Authority
Iraq Survey Group
Iraqi Governing Council
International Advisory and Monitoring Board
CPA Program Review Board
Development Fund for Iraq
Reconstruction of Iraq

May 2003: „End of Major Combat” – December 2003: Saddam captured

Post-invasion Iraq, 2003–2006
U.S. list of most-wanted Iraqis
Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal
Trial of Saddam Hussein

2004: The Insurgency expands

Military operations of the Iraq War
2004 in Iraq
Iraqi coalition counter-insurgency operations
History of Iraqi insurgency
United States occupation of Fallujah
Iraq Spring Fighting of 2004

April 2004: The First Battle of Fallujah

Main: First Battle of Fallujah
see also: White phosphorus use in Iraq

After this incident, the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force began plans to re-establish a coalition presence in Fallujah. On April 4, the multinational forces began assaults to clear Fallujah of insurgents. On April 9, the multinational force allowed more than 70,000 women, children and elderly residents to leave the besieged city, reportedly also allowing males of military age to leave. Meanwhile, insurgents were taking advantage of the lull in combat to prepare defenses for a second assault. On April 10, the military declared a unilateral truce to allow for humanitarian supplies to enter Fallujah. Troops pulled back to the outskirts of the city; local leaders reciprocated the ceasefire, although lower-level intense fighting on both sides continued. During the assault, U.S. forces used white phosphorus as one of the weapons on the insurgents. This use of a chemical weapon attracted controversy.

When the Iraqi Governing Council protested against the U.S. assault to retake Fallujah, the U.S. military halted its efforts. In the April battle for Fallujah, Coalition troops killed about 600 insurgents and a number of civilians, while 40 Americans died and hundreds were wounded in a fierce battle. The Marines were ordered to stand-down and cordon off the city, maintaining a perimeter around Fallujah. A compromise was reached in order to ensure security within Fallujah itself by creating the local „Fallujah Brigade„. While the Marines attacking had a clear advantage in ground firepower and air support, LtGen Conway decided to accept a truce and a deal which put a former Ba’athist general in complete charge of the town’s security. The Fallujah Brigade’s responsibility was to secure Fallujah and put a stop to insurgent mortar attacks on the nearby U.S. Marine bases. This compromise soon fell apart and insurgent attacks returned, causing Marine commanders to begin preparations for a second attack in the coming fall. By the end of the spring uprising, the cities of Fallujah, Samarra, Baquba, and Ramadi had been left under guerrilla control with coalition patrols in the cities at a minimum.[citation needed]

Early-mid 2004 – the Shi’ite south

Meanwhile, the fighting continued in the Shiite south, and Italian and Polish forces were having increasing difficulties retaining control over Nasiriya and Najaf. United States Marines were then shifted there to put down the overt rebellion and proceeded to rout Muqtada al-Sadr‚s Shiite militia. In all, April, May and early June saw more fighting. Over the next three months, the multinational forces took back the southern cities. Also, various insurgent leaders entered into negotiations with the provisional government to lay down arms and enter the political process.

June 2004: Iraqi Interim government and the Battle of Najaf

Main article: Iraqi Interim Government

On June 28, 2004, the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred the „sovereignty” of Iraq to a caretaker government, whose first act was to begin the trial of Saddam Hussein. However, fighting continued in the form of the Iraqi insurgency. The new government began the process of moving towards open elections, though the insurgency and the lack of cohesion within the government itself, had led to delays.

One of the results of this weakened government was an increase in power of the sectarian militias. This was most clearly seen when the religious and militia leader Muqtada al-Sadr took control of the holy city of Najaf. After negotiations broke down between Sadr and the Interim Iraqi government, the government asked the Coalition for help in dislodging him. So in July and August, coalition forces and the Mahdi Army fought in the Battle of Najaf which culminated in the siege of the Imam Ali Mosque. Fighting ended only after a peace deal brokered by Grand Ayatollah Sistani in late August.

November 2004: The Second Battle of Fallujah

The First Battle of Fallujah in April 2004 created an area of extreme instability and a de facto insurgent safe zone. After several months of this situation, in November 2004 coalition forces attacked and successfully captured Fallujah in the Second Battle of Fallujah. This battle resulted in the reputed death of over 5,000 insurgent fighters. The U.S. Marines (the main coalition force in combat) also took substantial casualties with 95 dead and around 500 wounded in action. According to local sources, hundreds of civilians were also killed and much of the city was destroyed in the battle.

An Iraqi Army unit prepares to board a Task Force Baghdad UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter for a counterinsurgency mission in Baghdad.

On January 31, an election for a government to draft a permanent constitution took place. Although some violence and lack of widespread Sunni Arab participation marred the event, most of the eligible Kurd and Shia populace participated. On February 4, Paul Wolfowitz announced that 15,000 U.S. troops whose tours of duty had been extended in order to provide election security would be pulled out of Iraq by the next month.[33]February, March and April proved to be relatively peaceful months compared to the carnage of November and January, with insurgent attacks averaging 30 a day from the prior average of 70.

Hopes for a quick end to an insurgency and a withdrawal of U.S. troops were dashed at the advent of May, Iraq’s bloodiest month since the invasion by U.S. forces in March and April of 2003. Suicide bombers, believed to be mainly disheartened Iraqi Sunni Arabs, Syrians and Saudis, tore through Iraq. Their targets were often Shia gatherings or civilian concentrations mainly of Shias. As a result, over 700 Iraqi civilians died in that month, as well as 79 U.S. soldiers.

During early and mid-May, the U.S. also launched Operation Matador, an assault by around 1,000 Marines in the ungoverned region of western Iraq. Its goal was the closing of suspected insurgent supply routes of volunteers and material from Syria, and with the fight they received their assumption proved correct. Fighters armed with flak jackets (unseen in the insurgency before this time) and using sophisticated tactics met the Marines, eventually inflicting 31 U.S. casualties by the operation’s end, and suffering 125 casualties themselves. The Marines were unable to recapture the region due to their limited numbers and the continual insurgent IED attacks and ambushes. The operation continued all the way to the Syrian border, where they were forced to stop (Syrian residents living near the border heard the American bombs very clearly during the operation). The vast majority of these armed and trained insurgents quickly dispersed before the U.S. could bring the full force of its firepower on them, as it did in Fallujah.

August 2005: Increasing instability and renewed fighting

On August 14, 2005 the Washington Post[34] quoted one anonymous U.S. senior official expressing that „the United States no longer expects to see a model new democracy, a self-supporting oil industry or a society in which the majority of people are free from serious security or economic challenges… ‚What we expected to achieve was never realistic given the timetable or what unfolded on the ground'”. On September 22, 2005, Prince Saud al-Faisal, the Saudi foreign minister, said that he had warned the Bush administration in recent days that Iraq was hurtling toward disintegration, and that the election planned for December was unlikely to make any difference.[35] U. S. officials immediately made statements rejecting this belief.[36]

December 2005: Iraqi legislative election

Main article: Iraqi legislative election, December 2005

Following the ratification of the Constitution of Iraq on October 15, 2005, a general election was held on 15 December to elect a permanent 275-member Iraqi National Assembly.

2006: Permanent Iraqi government and possible outbreak of civil war

Main article: 2006 in Iraq

The beginning of 2006 was marked by government creation talks, growing sectarian violence, and continuous anti-coalition attacks. The United Nations has recently described the environment in Iraq as a „civil war-like situation.”[37] A 2006 study by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has estimated that more than 601,000 Iraqis have died in violence since the U.S. invasion and that fewer than one third of these deaths came at the hands of Coalition forces.[38] The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the Iraqi government estimate that more than 365,000 Iraqis have been displaced since the bombing of the al-Askari Mosque, bringing the total number of Iraqi refugees to more than 1.6 million.[39]

February 2006: Al-Askari shrine bombing and Sunni-Shia fighting

See Al Askari Mosque bombing

 

A U.S. soldier with M240 machine gun on patrol in Diwaniyah.

 

A U.S. soldier with M240 machine gun on patrol in Diwaniyah.

On February 22, 2006, at 6:55 a.m. local time (0355 UTC) two bombs were set off by five to seven men dressed as personnel of the Iraqi Special forces who entered the Al Askari Mosque during the morning. Explosions occurred at the mosque, effectively destroying its golden dome and severely damaging the mosque. Several men, one wearing a military uniform, had earlier entered the mosque, tied up the guards there and set explosives, resulting in the blast.

Shiites across Iraq expressed their anger by destroying Sunni mosques and killing dozens. Religious leaders of both sides called for calm amid fears this could erupt into a long-feared Sunni-Shia civil war in Iraq.

On March 2 the director of the Baghdad morgue fled Iraq explaining, „7,000 people have been killed by death squads in recent months.”[40] The Boston Globe reported that around eight times the number of Iraqis killed by terrorist bombings during March 2006 were killed by sectarian death squads during the same period. A total of 1,313 were killed by sectarian militias while 173 were killed by suicide bombings.[41] The LA Times later reported that about 3,800 Iraqis were killed by sectarian violence in Baghdad alone during the first three months of 2006.[42] During April 2006, morgue numbers showed that 1,091 Baghdad residents were killed by sectarian executions.[43] Insurgencies, frequent terrorist attacks and sectarian violence led to harsh criticism of U.S. Iraq policy and fears of a failing state and civil war. The concerns were expressed by several U.S. think tanks[44][45][46][47] as well as the U.S. ambassador to Iraq, Zalmay Khalilzad.[48]

In early 2006, a handful of high-ranking retired generals began to demand United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld‚s resignation due in part to the aforementioned chaos that resulted from his management of the war.

May 2006: Permanent Iraqi Government takes power

Main article: Government of Iraq from 2006

The current government of Iraq took office on May 20, 2006 following approval by the members of the Iraqi National Assembly. This followed the general election in December 2005. The government succeeded the Iraqi Transitional Government which had continued in office in a caretaker capacity until the new government was agreed.

Fall 2006: Increased Sectarian Violence

In September 2006, The Washington Post reported that the commander of the Marine forces in Iraq filed „an unusual secret report” concluding that the prospects for securing the Anbar province are dim, and that there is almost nothing the U.S. military can do to improve the political and social situation there.[49]

Iraq was listed fourth on the 2006 Failed States Index compiled by the American Foreign Policy magazine and the Fund for Peace think-tank. The list was topped by Sudan.[50][51]

As of October 20 the U.S military announced that Operation Together Forward had failed to stem the tide of violence in Baghdad, and Shiite Militants Under al-Sadr seized several southern Iraq Cities.[52]

November 2006: Change at the Pentagon, Sadr City Bombing

See Sadr City bombings

On November 7, 2006, United States elections removed George W. Bush’s Republican Party from control of both the United States House and the Senate. The failings in the Iraq war was cited as one of the main causes for these election results.[citation needed]

On November 8, 2006, Donald Rumsfeld tendered his resignation as United States Secretary of Defense. President George W. Bush then appointed former CIA chief Robert Gates to replace him.

On November 23, 2006 the deadliest attack since the beginning of the Iraq war occurred. According to The Associated Press, suspected Sunni-Arab militants used five suicide car bombs and two mortar rounds on the capital’s Shiite Sadr City slum to kill at least 215 people and wound 257 on Thursday. Shiite mortar teams quickly retaliated, firing 10 shells at Sunni Islam’s most important shrine in Baghdad, badly damaging the Abu Hanifa mosque and killing one person. Eight more rounds slammed down near the offices of the Association of Muslim Scholars, the top Sunni Muslim organization in Iraq, setting nearby houses on fire. Two other mortar barrages on Sunni neighborhoods in west Baghdad killed nine and wounded 21, police said late Thursday.[53]

On November 28, 2006 another Marine Corps intelligence report was released confirming the previous report on Anbar stating that, ” U.S. and Iraqi troops „are no longer capable of militarily defeating the insurgency in al-Anbar,” and “nearly all government institutions from the village to provincial levels have disintegrated or have been thoroughly corrupted and infiltrated by Al Qaeda in Iraq,”.[54]

December 2006: Iraq Study Group report and Saddam’s execution

The Iraq War (Invasion to Civil War)
See Execution of Saddam Hussein

A bipartisan report by the Iraq Study Group was released on December 6, 2006. The group was led by former secretary of state James Baker and former Democratic congressman Lee Hamilton, and concludes that „the situation in Iraq is grave and deteriorating” and „U.S. forces seem to be caught in a mission that has no foreseeable end.” The report’s 79 recommendations include increasing diplomatic measures with Iran and Syria and intensifying efforts to train Iraqi troops. On December 18, a Pentagon report finds that attacks on Americans and Iraqis average about 960 a week, the highest since the reports began in 2005.[55]

Coalition forces formally transferred control of a province to the Iraqi government. The shift is the first of its kind since the war began. Military prosecutors charged 8 Marines with the deaths of 24 Iraqi civilians in Haditha that allegedly occurred in November 2005. Ten of the casualties were reported to be women and children. Four officers were also charged with dereliction of duty in relation to the event.[56]

Saddam Hussein, captured in December 2003, was hanged on December 30, 2006 after being found guilty of crimes against humanity.[57]

2007: U.S. Troop Surge

Further information: 2007 in Iraq , Iraq troop surge of 2007, and 2007 State of the Union Address

Following the 2006 United States midterm elections where the Republicans lost control of the United States Congress, the Bush administration attempted to distance itself from its earlier „stay the course” rhetoric [19], and responded to the December 6 Iraq Study Group report’s recommendations. [citation needed]

January 2007: Bush’s „New Way Forward” and Personnel changes

After Eid ul-Adha, several events occurred, including the 3000th U.S. military death in Iraq and the swearing in of Nancy Pelosi (a Democrat) as the Speaker of the House.

In the first week of January, several retirements and personnel changes occurred: [20]

On January 10, 2007 President Bush addressed the United States and Proposed increase in the number of troops in Iraq. In his speech, he made references to changes to be made, including a surge of 21,500 more troops for Iraq, a job program for Iraqis, more reconstruction proposals, and 1.2 billion dollars for these programs. „Asked why he thought his plan would work this time, Bush said: „Because it has to.”[58]

With a majority in power in both the House and Senate, Democrats overwhelmingly rejected the Bush „surge” plan. The Democrats called for a „phased withdrawl” of United States troops from the area, going as far as to pass a resolution (albeit nonbinding) denouncing Bush’s actions, and attempting to cut off the war’s funding. In the wake of this political shift, Iran stepped in. Realizing that the USA doesn’t have the will to see the conflict through to a successful end, the neighboring nation offered to replace them and take the lead in reconstruction and security, after America leaves. Talks between the two nations (Iran and Iraq) have been successful, with Iran even going so far as to build a major Iranian Bank branch inside Iraq.

Insurgents

Further information: Improvised explosive device , Explosively Formed Penetrator, and Suicide attack

The insurgents and guerrilla units favored attacking unarmored vehicles and avoiding major battles. The early Iraqi insurgency was concentrated in, but not limited to, an area referred to by the Western media and the occupying forces as the Sunni triangle which includes Baghdad. The insurgents dead are numbered between 45-60,000.[68]

By the fall of 2003, these insurgent groups began using typical guerrilla tactics such as ambushes, bombings, kidnappings, and improvised explosive devices. Other tactics included mortars, suicide bombers, roadside bombs, small arms fire, anti-aircraft missiles (SA-7,SA-14, SA-16) and RPGs, as well as sabotage against the oil, water, and electrical infrastructure. Multi-national Force-Iraq statistics (see detailed BBC graphic) show that the insurgents primarily targeted coalition forces, Iraqi security forces and infrastructure, and lastly civilians and government officials. These irregular forces favored attacking unarmored or lightly armored Humvee vehicles, the U.S. military’s primary transport vehicle, primarily through the roadside IED.[69][70] In November 2003, some of these forces successfully attacked U.S. rotary aircraft with SAM-7 missiles bought on the global black market.[citation needed] Insurgent groups such as the al-Abud Network have even attempted to constitute their own chemical weapons programs, attempting to weaponize traditional mortar rounds with ricin and mustard toxin.[71]

 

As Coalition Forces respond to a car bombing in South Baghdad, Iraq (IRQ), a second car bomb is detonated, targeting those responding to the initial incident. Date Shot: 14 Apr 2005

 

As Coalition Forces respond to a car bombing in South Baghdad, Iraq (IRQ), a second car bomb is detonated, targeting those responding to the initial incident. Date Shot: 14 Apr 2005

There is evidence that some guerrilla groups are organized, perhaps by the fedayeen and other Saddam Hussein or Ba’ath loyalists, religious radicals, Iraqis angered by the occupation, and foreign fighters.[72] On February 23, 2005 Al-Iraqiya TV (Iraq) aired transcripts of confessions by Syrian intelligence officer Anas Ahmad Al-Issa and Iraqi insurgent Shihab Al-Sab’awi concerning their booby-trap operations, explosions, kidnappings, assassinations, and details of beheading training in Syria.[73] The insurgents are known by the Coalition military (especially in the United States armed forces) as Anti-Iraqi Forces (AIF).[74][75]

One insurgent, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, was killed on June 7, 2006 in the town of Baquba, north of Baghdad, when U.S. warplanes dropped two 500-pound bombs on his isolated safe house.[76] Zarqawi, a Jordanian, did not fit the usual profile of an Iraqi insurgent and had closer ties to the al Qaeda terrorist organization. Still, President George W. Bush said the killing was „a severe blow to al-Qaida and it is a significant victory in the war on terror” but cautioned: „We have tough days ahead of us in Iraq that will require the continuing patience of the American people.”[77]

Despite Zarqawi’s death Al-Qaeda in Iraq vowed to continue its „holy war„, according to a statement posted on a Web site announcing: „We want to give you the joyous news of the martyrdom of the mujahed sheik Abu Musab al-Zarqawi.”[77] Zarqawi’s death may have had little impact on the violence since evidence of continued violence in Iraq could still be seen in the month of June with over 1,600 Iraqi deaths that month, the highest monthly total to date since the Al Askari Mosque bombing.[78]

In addition to internal strife, Iran may be playing a role in the insurgency. U.S. Army Brig. Gen. Michael Barbero said, „Iran is definitely a destabilizing force in Iraq,” Barbero said. „I think it’s irrefutable that Iran is responsible for training, funding and equipping some of these Shia extremist groups.

NA KONIEC KRÓTKIE MATERIAŁY FILMOWE Z IRAKU, NIE ZA DUŻO ALE CIEKAWIE:

Odpowiedzi: 5 to “Wojna w Iraku”

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